Geology involves the study of solid Earth, rocks, other solid structures, minerals, physical and chemical properties, water resources and the processes and reactions by which their state and properties change.  It is essentially Earth Science.
The science of geology is not limited to the study of planet earth alone, it also covers the study of solid surface, structures, and properties of celestial bodies (other planets, meteors, and satellites). This sub-discipline of Geology is called Astrogeology.

In the study and analysis of solid earth and other geologic data mentioned above, areas of study such as history of evolution of the earth, presence and distribution of natural resources (minerals, petroleum, natural gas, hydrocarbons etc.), presence and distribution of groundwater, climate change, environmental problems and natural hazards are also covered. The discipline involves a lot of outdoor work, activity, and exploration.

The average course fees in India ranges between INR 10,000 and 30,000. The average annual salary offered to successful postgraduates of the course varies between INR 4 and 5 lacs.

Courses and Duration

  • in Geology- 3 years
  • in Geology- 2 years
  • Ph.D. in Geology- 2 years
  • M.Phil in Geology- 2 years


Geology can be studied after XII (PCM). Admission to university courses is merit-based. Graduate and postgraduate courses in geology are offered by many universities. Specialized courses are offered by the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. After XII (with PCM) IIT Kharagpur admits students through JEE to 5-year Integrated programme in Exploration Geophysics. After BTech/BE/M.Sc and Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) admission are made to the 3 semester M Tech in Geology and Geophysics.

Admission Process

Admission to the course is based on the candidate’s performance at the 10+2 level. A few institutes, however, shortlist students based on their performance in an additional entrance test conducted at their own level.

Top colleges

Name of Institute City Average Fees in INR
Dibrugarh University Dibrugarh, Assam 20,000
M. G. Science Institute Ahmedabad, Gujarat 18,000
Assabah Science and Arts College Malappuram, Kerala 1,12,000
M. E. S Ponnani College Ponnani, Kerala 67,800
Himalayan University Arunachal Pradesh 48,000
Presidency Institute Kolkata 11,400
Sree Narayana College Cherthala, Kerala 5,310
Shivaji University Kolhapur 30,000

Career Prospects

Successful postgraduates of the course find lucrative opportunities in areas such as Mineral Exploration, Mineral Processing, Mineral Mining, Mining, Mineral Production, Mineral Extraction, Coal Extraction, Exotic Gem Mining, Private Refineries, Oil and Natural Gas Exploration, and Oil and Natural Gas Extraction etc. in both private and government sectors.
Some of the popular government- sector recruiters include the following:

  • GSI (Geological Survey of India)
  • ONGC
  • SAIL
  • Coal India
  • GMDC (Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation)
  • Government operated Quarries
  • National Mineral Development Corporation
  • Odisha Mining Corporation
  • Rajasthan State Mines and Minerals
  • Tamil Nadu Minerals Limited
  • DRDO
  • ISRO

Such graduates are also employed in allied sectors such as Metallurgical Engineering, Civil Engineering, and Mining Engineering.