Oceanography is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean. It is a scientific branch which deals with all the aspects of the world’s oceans and seas, including their physical and chemical properties, their origin and geologic framework. Oceanography is the scientific study of sea currents, the fish, the seabed and animals that live in the sea.
The study of oceanography covers a wide range of topics, including marine life and ecosystems, plate tectonics, ocean circulation, geology of the seafloor, and many more things related to the oceans.
Streams of Oceanography:
Oceanography is basically divided into four branches which are explained below in brief:
- Biological Oceanography: It is the study of the plants and animals of the sea, including life cycles and food production. This includes the distribution, abundance, and production of marine species along with the processes that help the species to spread and develop. It also shows how the species are affected by the Science related to oceans.
- Chemical Oceanography: It deals with the composition of seawater and the biological cycles that affect it. Chemical Oceanography is the study of the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth’s oceans.
- Geological Oceanography: Geological Oceanography is the study of Earth beneath the oceans. It allows the study of the topography, structure, and geological processes of the ocean floor to find out how the Earth and oceans were formed and how the ongoing processes may change their structure in the future.
- Physical Oceanography: It is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, the motion and physical properties of ocean waters. It helps to describe the physical processes in the ocean, the interaction of the ocean and the atmosphere, and the role of oceans in the Earth’s climate and atmosphere.
Different Courses in Oceanography and their Duration:
A candidate who is interested in oceanography can go for the undergraduate, postgraduate or doctoral course according to his/her eligibility. Below are the types of courses available in India in oceanography:
- Undergraduate Course: A candidate can do Bachelor of Science course of three duration in oceanography. The course is divided into six semesters and at the end of each year, a candidate has to pass the yearly examination.
- Postgraduate Course: A candidate can do Master of Science course in Oceanography/Marine Biology. The duration of this course is two years divided into four semesters. Also, there are some institutes which provide Master of Technology course in oceanography or marine biology. The duration of M.Tech. courses are two years.
- Doctoral Course: A candidate can go for research courses and can do Ph.D. or M.Phil. in oceanography.
List of Few Oceanography Colleges in India:
- Anna University, Institute for Ocean Management, Chennai
- Annamalai University, Centre for Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Tamil Nadu
- Berhampur University, Orissa
- Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kerala
- Goa University
- Mangalore University
- National Institute of Oceanography, Goa.
Eligibility Criteria for Different Courses:
- Undergraduate Course: To do Bachelor of Science in Oceanography, a candidate must have passed the 12th standard examination or any other equivalent examination with Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics as subjects from a recognized board.
- Postgraduate Course: A candidate who has done graduation in Zoology/Botany/Chemistry/Fisheries Science/Earth Science/Physics/Agriculture/Microbiology/Applied Science or any other equivalent discipline from a recognized university is eligible to apply for the course.
- Doctoral Course: A candidate must have done graduation and post graduation in the relevant discipline from a recognized university.
Entrance Examinations for Various Courses:
- Undergraduate Course: Admission to the Bachelor of Science courses is given on the basis of marks scored in 10+2 level examination. However, there are some colleges who conduct their separate examination to shortlist the eligible candidates for the course.
- Postgraduate Course: To grant admission in M.Tech/M.E in oceanography, IITs conduct an entrance examination known as GATE to shortlist the candidates for the course. For Master of Science courses, different universities have their different entrance procedures and examinations.
- Doctoral Course: Admission to the research courses is done on the basis of marks obtained in the examinations like NET (National Eligibility Test).
Jobs & Career Opportunities:
A candidate who has done a course in oceanography has a wide range of choices while selecting a career. It covers areas in industry, commerce or research. Below is the list of few job profiles an aspirant can choose in making his/her career:
- Biological Oceanographer
- Chemical Oceanographer
- Geological Oceanographer
- Marine and Ocean Engineer
- Marine Policy Experts
- Marine Technician
- Marine and Ocean Engineers
- Marine Archaeologist
- Marine Environmentalist
- Physical Oceanographer