Medical Courses

The healthcare industry aka the medical industry or healthcare economy is one of the largest and fastest-growing industries of India. Aspirants choosing Biology as the main subject in Class 11 and 12, start their rigorous preparation to pursue medical education from the beginning. Apart from the MBBS and the BDS courses which are predominant, there are plenty of medical courses after class 12 which can be pursued by Biology aspirants for an ideal career path. These courses have a vital role in the medical industry and have different professions. Since NEET, AIIMS MBBS and JIPMER MBBS are being conducted at the national level entrance examination for admission to medical courses after 12 like MBBS, BDS, BHMS, BUMS, BAMS among others. Nevertheless, there are alternative medical courses without NEET, which candidates can opt as their career to become a doctor. Some of these medical courses include BOT, BSc Biotechnology, Bachelor of Respiratory Therapy and others.


Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery – MBBS

Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) is one of the most prominent graduate degrees for becoming a doctor. It is a combination of two professional degrees in medicine and surgery offered by government and private colleges of the country. This is a 5-year duration course with Basic, Pre and Paramedical subjects. In the duration of 5 years, students must complete 12 months compulsory rotatory internship.

And since NEET is the only entrance examination for admission to a total of 66,620 MBBS seats, it becomes the most competitive degree for aspirants. Along with NEET, AIIMS, New Delhi and JIPMER, Puducherry also conducted their own entrance examination for admission to MBBS medical courses after 12.

Bachelor of Dental Surgery – BDS

Bachelor of Dental Surgery, aka BDS, is an also 5 years duration with one-year compulsory internship course offered through NEET. The BDS education in India is being regulated by the Dental Council of India (DCI). As per the official notification, around 25,000 seats have been reserved for BDS aspirants for admission to dental colleges of India.

Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery – BAMS

BAMS is a professional medical course after Class 12th focused on Ayurvedic medicine. The degree is awarded after 5 and a half years of study including one year of internship. A BAMS graduate is allowed to provide medical treatment in some states of India after registering at government approved licensing authority.

Career opportunities The graduate aspirants can either continue general practice or can appear for M.D. Ayurveda. There are also the opportunities to work under the hospital and healthcare administration.

Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery – BHMS

BHMS is a graduate degree in Homeopathy in India, and it is awarded after the study for a duration of 5 and a half years with a one-year internship. Candidates choosing BHMS as their medical course after 12th can opt for any specialization namely, Homeopathic Pharmacy, Paediatrics, Psychiatry, Skin specialist among others to treat the patients with Homeopathic knowledge.

Career opportunities – Most of the Homeopathic doctors open up their private clinic or work with the multi-specialty chain of homeopathic clinics.

Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery – BUMS

BUMS is an undergraduate degree programme in the field of Unani Medicine and Surgery. BUMS degree is a 5.5 years duration course containing 4.5 years of academic session and one year of internship. This undergraduate programme can also be pursued through distance education.

Career opportunities – Candidate who got BUMS degree is often called as Hakeem and can do the private practice. An Unani practitioner can look the career as the medical representative or as a doctor in private or government hospitals.

Bachelor of Physiotherapy – B.Pth or BPT

B.Pth or BPT is a graduate academic course in a medical science known for Physiotherapy. The duration, of course, is 4.5 years, of which candidates must complete 6 months of mandatory clinical internship.

Career opportunities – The graduates of BPT are employed in areas such as hospitals, health institutes, fitness centers, private clinics etc. as a physiotherapist.

Bachelor of Veterinary Science – B.VSc

B.SC is a 5 years undergraduate course which provides academic as well as practical knowledge in assisting the veterinary doctors in their laboratory. Veterinary medicine is a branch of science that deals in prevention, diagnosis, and prevention of disease, disorder, and injury in animals.

Career opportunities – One with B.VSc degree carry forward the profession of being a veterinarian. A candidate can find an employment in government as well as private veterinary hospitals.

Bachelor of Naturopathy and Yoga – BNYS

BNYS is a medical degree graduation in India in the field of integrative medicine, which covers the study of both naturopathic medicine and modern science. The undergraduate degree is of 4 years and 6 months duration with one year of full-time internship.

Career opportunities – A person with BNYS degree can practice medicine as a General Practitioner (GP) anywhere in India under different State Medical Councils or can practice as a lecturer in various medical universities.

Bachelor of Siddha Medicine and Surgery – BSMS

Bachelor of Siddha Medicine and Surgery, aka, BSMS is a 5.5 years course in Siddha medicine with a one-year internship. Students opting BSMS as medical course after 12th will be eligible to be called as a Doctor. BSMS is governed by the Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM), the apex body working under Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of AYUSH.

Career opportunities – Candidates owning a BSMS degree can be considered as a doctor and are eligible to be a lecturer in any Siddha Medical College. Else, they can be employed as a Siddha doctor in government hospitals. Most of the Siddha doctors start their private clinics.

Medical Courses after 12th without NEET

Here are a few most recommended medical courses without NEET, which a candidate can opt as a medical career after Class 12.

  • Bachelor of Occupational Therapy
  • Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology
  • Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) in Biomedical Engineering
  • Bachelor of Science in Microbiology (Non-Clinical)
  • Bachelor of Science in Cardiac or Cardiovascular Technology
  • Bachelor of Respiratory Therapy
  • Bachelor in Psychology


There are alternative medical courses and career paths which the candidates can pursue if they have studied a combination of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (PCB) or Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics (PCM) at Class 12 level. Some of these courses can even be pursued irrespective of the stream one has passed his/her Class 12 from. In the case of MBBS, BDS, and these related courses, the candidate needs to clear NEET and have a minimum percentage of 60% in PCB (General category), and 40% for the reserved category in 10+2 examination.

Career and Job Opportunities

  1. Advance Care Paramedic
  2. Anaesthesia Assistants and Technologist
  3. Anatomy (Non-clinical)
  4. Assistant Behaviour Analyst
  5. Behavior Analyst
  6. Biochemistry
  7. Burn Care Technologist
  8. Cell Geneticist
  9. Clinical Coder
  10. Clinical Social Worker (other than Counsellors)
  11. Critical Care or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Technologist
  12. Cytotechnologist
  13. Diagnostic Medical Radiographer
  14. Diagnostic Medical Sonographer
  15. Dialysis Therapy Technologist
  16. Dietician including Clinical Dietician, Food Service Dietician
  17. Ecologist
  18. Electrocardiogram (ECG) Technologist or Echocardiogram (ECHO) Technologist
  19. Electroencephalogram (EEG) or Electroneurodiagnostic (END) or Electromyography (EMG) Technologist or Neuro Lab Technologist
  20. Emergency Medical Technologist (Paramedic) or Emergency Medical Technician-Basic
  21. Endoscopy and Laparoscopy Technologist
  22. Environment Protection Officer
  23. Forensic Science Technologist
  24. Health Educator including Disease Counsellors, Diabetes Educators, Lactation Consultants
  25. Health Information Management Assistant, Medical Secretary,
  26. Transcription (Including Medical Record Technician or Medical Records Analyst)
  27. Health Information Management Technologist
  28. Hemato-technologist
  29. Histo-technologist
  30. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Counsellors or Family Planning Counsellors
  31. Integrated Behavioural Health Counsellors
  32. Medical Equipment Technologist
  33. Medical Laboratory Technologist
  34. Mental Health Support Workers
  35. Molecular Biologist (non-clinical)
  36. Molecular Geneticist
  37. Movement Therapist including Art, Dance and Movement Therapist or Recreational Therapist
  38. Nuclear Medicine Technologist
  39. Occupational Health and Safety Officer
  40. Operation Theatre (OT) Technologist
  41. Ophthalmic Assistant
  42. Optometrist
  43. Physician Associate and Assistant
  44. Physiology (Non-clinical)
  45. Physiotherapist including Geriatric Physical Therapist, Orthopaedic Physical Therapist, Pediatric Physical Therapist
  46. Podiatrist
  47. Radiology and Imaging Technologist or Assistants (Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT), Mammography)
  48. Radiotherapy Technologist
  49. Sleep Lab Technologist