Genetic engineering is described as an act of reorienting the genetic makeup of an organism. Modifications can be generated by procedures such as gene targeting, nuclear transplantation, transfection of synthetic chromosomes or viral insertion. Selective breeding is not considered a form of genetic engineering.
Genetic engineering is used by scientists to enhance or modify the characteristics of an individual organism. Genetic engineering can be applied to any organism, from a virus to a sheep. For example, genetic engineering can be used to produce plants that have a higher nutritional value or can tolerate exposure to herbicides.
The first genetically modified organism to be created was a bacterium, in 1973. Genetic engineering has a number of useful applications, including scientific research, agriculture, and technology.
Some specializations available in genetic engineering are as follows:
- Clinical genetics
- Behavioral genetics
- Classical genetics
- Population, quantitative and ecological genetics
- Molecular genetics
- Genetic algorithms.
Courses and Duration
Some most sought courses opted by students for genetic engineering are listed below:
Bachelor Courses: UG degree courses leading to the B.Sc and B.Tech with the duration of 4 years.
- Bachelor of Engineering in Genetic Engineering
- Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) in Genetic Engineering
- B.Sc in Genetic Engineering
Master Courses: PG degree courses leading to the M.Sc and M.Tech with the duration of 2 years.
- Master of Engineering in Genetic Engineering
- Master of Technology (M.Tech) in Genetic Engineering
- M.Sc in Genetic Engineering
Top colleges which offer various courses in genetic engineering:
- Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
- Indian Institute of Science, (IISc), Bangalore
- Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
- Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
- All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
- Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
In India, most of the colleges give admission on the basis of ranks secured in JEE Main and GATE score. Counseling follows after taking an entrance examination.
Major Entrance Exams for Genetic Engineering are :
- JEE MAINS,
- JEE ADVANCE,
- SRM EEE,
- VIT EEE,
- BIT SAT, etc.
- For B.Sc courses
Candidates are eligible if they are passed in every subject of 10+2 (i.e. HS or equivalent ISC, CBSE etc.) from Science Stream only and having Physics / Chemistry / Mathematics / Biology (or related Biological Science subject) subjects. *Candidates who are waiting for their 10+2 result may also apply.
- For M. Sc. Courses
Candidates are eligible if they are passed with minimum 40% marks in B. Sc (10+2+3) in Biological Science / Biotechnology / Chemistry / Chemical Engineering / similar and relevant subjects.
Candidates who are waiting for their B. Sc result may also apply.
- For B.tech courses
The basic eligibility criteria for a graduate degree (B.E/B.tech) is 10+2 or equivalent examination, with biology, chemistry, and mathematics as well as genetics as part of the biology
A bachelor’s degree in science or molecular biology.
To get admittance into this course, individuals have to appear for an admission test. A list of a few of those exams is mentioned below.
List of Entrance Exams in Genetic Engineering
- All India Common Entrance Test
- All India Engineering Entrance Exams
- All India Postgraduate Medical Entrance exams
- Assam Joint entrance Test in Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
- Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering
- Indian Institute of Technology – Joint Entrance Exam
- International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Entrance Exam
- Jawaharlal Nehru University Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology Entrance Exam (JNU EEE)
- SRM University Genetic Engineering Entrance Exam
- Tamil Nadu Common Entrance Test (TANCET) Genetic Engineering Entrance Exam
The question paper will be set in English. 200 questions shall be asked of the students. Students will be provided with 3- 4 options for each question. Correct answers shall entail 3 marks and incorrect responses shall lead to the deduction of 1 mark.
Jobs & Career Opportunities
Genetic engineering graduates are required in government as well as private organizations.
There is a great growth in genetic engineering in India as well as abroad. With the increasing number of biotech firms in India, the future scope in genetic engineering is good.
The graduates of this field can also opt to teach as a career. Numerous colleges are introducing genetic engineering course in their colleges and for that, they recruit professionals in this field.
Genetic Engineering scientists and researchers usually find jobs in the research labs of universities and research institutions. Some even join the R&D section of biotech industries
In India, there are several sectors that give employment to genetic engineers and professionals so a career in genetic engineering is promising.
- Medical Industry
- Agricultural sector
- Research and Development Departments of Government, Semi-Government and Private Sectors.
Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Industries.