Floriculture also knew as flower farming, is a discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and for floristry, comprising the floral industry. The development, via plant breeding, of new varieties, is a major occupation of floriculturists.
Cultivation of flowery plants can be done in open fields, in poly houses or in greenhouses. The crops come under floriculture are bedding plants, houseplants, flowering garden and pot plants, cut cultivated greens and cut flowers.
Floriculturists are involved in the cultivation of plants that produce beautiful flowers. They focus on the farming of ornamental plants for gardens, floral industry and for export. In addition to this, they also produce plant breeding of new varieties. They also do other jobs like wild harvesting and production of commercial flowers, flower seed, foliage, and essential oil crop and production of plant products.
Some very important processes involved in Floriculture sector are- production of potted as well as nursery plants, micropropagation, seed and bulb production, flower trade, extraction of raw materials from flowers using scientific methods etc.
Courses and Duration
Individuals can pursue the following courses in the field of floriculture:
Certificate Courses: The duration of certificate programmes is of 6-12 months with combine floral design courses in aspects of horticulture.
- Certificate in Floriculture Technology
- Certificate course in Floriculture
Undergraduate Courses : 3 years duration
- B.Sc (Floriculture and Landscaping)
- B.Sc in Floriculture
Master’s Courses: 2 years duration
- M.Sc (Floriculture and Landscaping)
- M.Sc (Floriculture Business Management)
Apart from the above-mentioned Degree courses, there also exists a number of Diploma Floriculture courses, which are offered by many Institutes. In case of such courses, the course duration is less compared to the UG and PG courses.
The admission will be done on the basis of All India Entrance Examination or the entrance examination conducted by various universities. Admission to master’s course will be done through All India Entrance Examination which is conducted by the Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR).
Admission on the Basis of Board Merit: Minimum 80% aggregate marks at Higher & Senior Secondary level (classes X & XII), and minimum 80% marks in aggregate in Physics, Chemistry & Mathematics at Senior Secondary level (class XII).
Admission on the Basis of JEE Mains Merit: Minimum 60% marks in aggregate at Higher & Senior Secondary levels (classes X and XII) and minimum 60% marks in aggregate in Physics, Chemistry & Mathematics at Senior Secondary level (class XII).
Some well-established institutes in India are mentioned that offers courses in floriculture:
- Allahabad School of Agriculture, Allahabad, UP
- Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra
- College of Horticulture, Thrissur, Kerala
- Horticulture College and Research Institute, Periakulam
- Faculty of Horticulture, TNAU, Coimbatore
- Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana, Punjab.
- Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
- RIMT University, Gobindgarh
- Rai Technology University, Bangalore
- BA College of Agriculture, Anand
- Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Pune
- Successful completion of 10+2 from a recognized educational Board with a minimum aggregate score of 80%, with Physics, Chemistry and Maths/ Biology/ Agriculture as the main subjects, one is eligible to apply for enrolment to the course.
- The eligibility criterion required for MSc in floriculture – candidate must pass his or her graduation from any recognized university in the country. A Graduate in Agriculture or floriculture is eligible for this course. There is no age bar.
- People interested in floriculture as a career should be patient, analytical and observant. They must be detailed focused and perfect in their work. As in any horticultural career field, a love of nature is essential. Creativity and artistic flair along with physical stamina and manual dexterity will make candidates apt to work in this field.
List of Entrance Exams for Floriculture :
- All India Entrance Examination
- Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) Entrance Examination
- Jawaharlal Nehru University Entrance Examination
- Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences Entrance Examination
- Punjab Agricultural University Entrance Examination
- Tamil Nadu Agriculture University (TNAU) Entrance Examination
- College of Horticulture & Forestry Entrance Examination
- Jawaharlal Nehru Kristi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Entrance Examination
- Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry Entrance Examination
- Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University Entrance Examination
- University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra Entrance Examination
Examination Pattern –
- The Entrance exam for the same will be pen and paper-based test i.e. mode of exam is offline.
- The duration of the test will be 2 hours (120 minutes). It will consist of multiple choice questions (MCQs) i.e. objective type questions.
- The total number of questions asked in the entrance test will be 200.
- Every correct answer will be awarded +1 mark and negative marking scheme will not be applicable.
Jobs & Career Opportunities
Floriculturist graduates can start their career in this profession after completing their degree programmes. Aspirants can apply in the floral industry in the various designations like floral designers, production managers, and sales representatives all work for florists, garden centers and nurseries in the design, production, and sales of flowers. Those having much experience in plant cutting and breeding can find the number of jobs in private as well as government sectors. You can find the number of professional jobs in this field such as entry-level garden center positions to highly specialized jobs in research under a wide variety of horticulture.
First comes on-site jobs such as plantation and estate managers, supervisors etc. Research sector associated with this field is also a very promising and rewarding one. Thus, it is safe to say that R&D sector also provides a considerable amount of job opportunities.
Self-employment Opportunity: There is a good self-employment opportunity in this field. Small-scale floriculture industry can be established with limited resources through which one can be gainfully employed. This Industry has a very high employment generation and foreign exchange earning potentials.
Following is the list of some floriculture industries in India :
- Eden Park Agro Products (P) Ltd, Pune
- Pudumjee Plant Laboratories Ltd, Pune
- Indus Floritech Ltd, Hyderabad
- Sahil Agro and Farm Products, 24-kapashera – Delhi
- Shreyansh Blooms, Raghu Gunk, Chawri Bazaar – Delhi.